NMDB publications

During and after the project, the coordinator shall provide references and an abstract of all scientific publications relating to the foregorund at the latest two months following publication (see Article II.30 of the Grant Agreement). As part of the final project report, the coordinator will be required to submit a full list of publications relating to the foreground of the project.

All publications shall include the following statement to indicate said foreground was generated with the assistance of financial support from the Community:

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 213007.

Please list all publications that are related to NMDB foreground on this webpage, and send a copy of the paper to the coordinator.

Papers presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, Lodz 2009 (
http://icrc2009.uni.lodz.pl/), are accessible as pdf files, with kind permission of the conference organisers.

  • 'Applications and usage of the real-time neutron monitor database for solar particle events monitoring'

    Mavromichalaki, H. (1), Papaioannou, A. (1), Plainaki, C. (1), Sarlanis, C. (1), Souvatzoglou, G. (1), Gerontidou, M. (1), Papailiou M. (1), Eroshenko, E. (2), Belov, A. (2), Yanke, V. (2), Flückiger, E. O. (3), Bütikofer, R. (3), Parisi, M. (4), Storini, M. (4,*), Klein K.- L. (5), Fuller, N. (5), Steigies, C. T. (6), Rother, O. M. (6), Heber, B. (6), Wimmer – Schweingruber, R. F. (6), Kudela, K. (7), Strharsky, I. (7), Langer, R. (7), Usoskin, I. (8), Ibragimov, A. (8), Chilingaryan, A. (9), Hovsepyan, G. (9), Reymers, A. (9), Yeghikyan, A. (9), Kryakunova, O. (10), Dryn, E. (10), Nikolayevskiy, N. (10),Dorman, L. (11), Pustil’nik, L. (11)

    (1) National and Kapodistrian University of Athens-NKUA, (2) IZMIRAN after Pushkov-IZMIRAN
    (3) University of Bern-UBERN, (4) University Roma Tre-UNIROMA3, (5) l’Observatoire de Paris-
    OBSPARIS, (6) University of Kiel-CAU, (7) Institute of Experimental Physics Slovak Academy of
    Sciences-Kosice, (8) University of Oulu-UOULU, (9) Yerevan Physics Institute after A.I. Alikhanyan-
    ARAGATS, (10) Institute of Ionosphere-ALMATY, (11) Tel Aviv University-TAU

    Adv. Space Res. DOI 10.1016/j.asr.2010.02.019, 2010, Available online 21 February 2010, ADS link

  • 'WWW.NMDB.EU: The real-time Neutron Monitor database'

    Klein K.-L.(1), Fuller N.(1), Steigies C.T.(2), and the NMDB Consortium,
    (1) Observatoire de Paris, (2) Christian-Albrechts Universitaet Kiel

    The Real time database for high-resolution neutron monitor measurements (NMDB) project, supported by the European Commission, is underway to set up a database for European and some non-European neutron monitors. The objective is to ensure an easy use of the data by astrophysicists and a wide user community interested by space-weather applications. The contribution presents the status and future developments of the project, and illustrates some applications.

    Proc. 31st Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Lodz, 2009, paper 1333

    • Estimation of detectors stability of the neutron monitors network

      Asipenka A.¤, Belov A.¤, Gushchina R.¤, Eroshenko E.¤, Kobelev P.¤, Yudachin K.¤ and Yanke V.¤, for NMDB Team.

      {*} Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation RAS (IZMIRAN), Moscow, Russia

      Results of continuous monitoring are the experimental basis for great number of works devoted to investigations of cosmic rays variations. In this work independent and complementary methods of detector stability estimation are used. Quantitative estimations of relative efficiencies have been received for the retrospective data with the average daily resolution.
      Proc. 31st Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Lodz, 2009, paper 1031

    • Definition of cosmic ray density and anisotropy vector beyond the magnetosphere in real time mode.

      Asipenka A. {1}, Belov A. {1}, Eroshenko E. {1}, Ibragimov A. {2}, Oleneva V. {1}, Yanke V. {1}, Mavromichalaki H. {3}, Papaioannou A. {3}, Papailou M. {3}, Mariatos G. {3}, for the NMDB Team.

      {1} Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation RAS (IZMIRAN), Moscow, Russia
      {2} University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
      {3} Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

      Experimentally, directly from the data of each station (each neutron monitor) we obtain variations of the secondary cosmic ray component which is generated by the primary particles in the Earth atmosphere. Our task is to get the cosmic ray variations in the space, beyond the Earth’s atmosphere and magnetosphere using data from the world wide NM network. This task is solved by means of the Global Survey Method (GSM) which is a complicated version of the spherical analysis method. In the frame of FP7 NMDB project this task has been solved in areal time mode. The program GSM012T was developed as modified version of the main GSM program to adjust it to real time calculations. The results are published in digit and graphical forms.

      Proc. 31st Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Lodz, 2009, paper 1106

    • The ALERT signal of ground level enhancements of solar cosmic rays: physics basis, the ways of realization and development.

      Anashin V.{1}, Belov A.{2}, Eroshenko E.{2}, Krjakunova O.{3}, Mavromichalaki H.{4}, Ishutin I.{1},Sarlanis C.{4}, Souvatsoglo G.{4}, Vashenyuk E.{5}, and Yanke V.{2}

      1-Russian Institute of Space Device Engineering, Moscow, Russia
      2-Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation RAS (IZMIRAN), Moscow, Russia
      3-Institute of Ionosphere of National Center of Space Research and Technologies, Almaty, Kazakhstan
      4-Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, Athens University, Greece
      5-Polar Geophysical Institute, Apatity, Russia.

      Abstract. Using the data from neutron monitor network observation the system of the ALERT signal generation is elaborated about, as ground level proton enhancements, so for search of solar neutron increases. On this basis the service with the emergency notification by e-mail about the onset of such increase is organized. Possibility of self-testing of system is provided.

      Proc. 31st Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Lodz, 2009, paper 1104

    • The neutron monitor data acquisition system MARS-06 for cosmic ray stations
      Klepach, E.(1), Kartyshov, V. (1), Sarlanis, C.(2), Shepetov, A.(3), Yanke, V. (1), for NMDB Team

      {1} Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation RAS (IZMIRAN), Moscow, Russia
      {2} Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
      {3} Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station, Almaty, Kazakhstan

      The data acquisition system MARS06 is destined for recording the pulse intensity data of neutron monitor counters at the cosmic ray stations. The system in build on the basis of the industrial multi-purpose controller card Advantech PCI1780U which works in a simple scaling mode, where it possess a high operation speed. During the last years such systems have been installed at the cosmic ray stations in Almaty, Athens, Irkutsk, Magadan and Moscow, and also at the Antarctic station Mirny. The data registration may be held both under the Linux and Widows operation systems with an immediate dispatch of measurement results to the united database of the world-wide neutron monitor network (NMDB) in real time. The program package necessary for system installation may be downloaded
      by ddress ftp:// cr0.izmiran.rssi.ru/NMDB_doc/RegistrationSystems_MARS/(PCI-1780).

      Proc. 31st Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Lodz, 2009, paper 1094

    • Cosmic ray monitoring in real time at the Antarctic station Mirny

      Garbatsevich V., Klepach E., Osin A., Smirnov D., Tsibulya K., Yanke V.

      Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation RAS (IZMIRAN), Moscow, Russia

      We depict the Antarctic cosmic ray station Mirny, which has been modernized to meat the requirements of the modern cosmic ray monitoring. There is given a description of the subsystems of registration, acquisition, and a subsequent real-time transmission via satellite of the cosmic ray intensity data with a 1 minute temporal resolution. Also, a quality estimation for the last observation period is shown.

      Proc. 31st Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Lodz, 2009, paper 1070

    • Asymptotic longitudinal distribution of cosmic ray variations in real time as the method of interplanetary space diagnostic

      Asipenka A.{1}, Eroshenko E. {1}, Belov A.{1}, Ibragimov A. {2}, Mavromichalaki H. {3}, Papailiou M. {3}, Papaioannou A.{3}, Oleneva V. {1}, Yanke V.{1} for the NMDB Team

      {1} Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation RAS (IZMIRAN), Moscow, Russia
      {2} University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
      {3} Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

      Continuous ground level observations of cosmic rays give a chance to reveal the precursors of large interplanetary disturbances and geomagnetic storms. The picture of CR variation distribution by the asymptotic longitudes shows the characteristics features evidencing about an approach of interplanetary disturbance. These distributions can be pictured and studied using the ring station method which is realized in real time mode in the frame of e-Infrastructures project NMD in the Seventh Framework Programme. The Internet project is created for monitoring of such events.

      Proc. 31st Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Lodz, 2009, paper 1109

    • A real-time search for solar neutron events in the data
      of high-altitude neutron monitors.

      Belov, A.{1}, Asipenka, A.{1}, Dorman, L.{1}, Eroshenko, E.{1},Kryakunova, O., {2},Nikolayevskyy, N.{2}, Shepetovz, A.{2}, Yanke, V. {1}, and Zhang JiLong {3}
      Belov A. {1}, Eroshenko E. {1}, Yanke V. {1}, Zhang JiLong {3}, Nikolayevskiy N. {2}, Kryakunova O. {2}, for the NMDB team

      {1} Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation RAS (IZMIRAN), Moscow region, Russia
      {2} Institute of Ionosphere of National Center of Space Research and Technologies, Almaty, Kazakhstan
      {3} Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China

      Two types of the ground-level enhancements of the solar cosmic ray intensity are described. A method is proposed for valuation of the solar neutron registration efficiency, and an efficiency index is introduced for monitoring of solar neutrons by the world-wide network of ground based neutron monitors.

      Proc. 31st Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Lodz, 2009, paper 1107

    • On mid-term periodicities in cosmic rays: utilizing the NMDB archive.
      K. Kudela {1}, H. Mavromichalaki {2}, A. Papaioannou {2}, M. Gerontidou {2} for NMDB team

      {1}Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academia of Science, Kosice, Slovakia
      {2}Physics Department, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

      The contribution of quasi-periodic variations of cosmic rays (QPs) for T >27 days at the primary energies to which the neutron monitors (NM) are sensitive, has a rather complicated character. They were reported in several papers (e.g. [1]-[3] among others) from individual stations and for various time intervals covered. The data archive of several neutron monitor stations developed within the NMDB project (www.nmdb.eu) involves now long time series of measurements at NMs situated at different geomagnetic cut-off rigidity positions and at different altitudes. It is updated continually. Using the daily averages of cosmic ray intensity at three selected stations within NMDB a) the temporal evolution of the selected quasi-periodicities, especially those of ~1.7 yr, ~150 days and ~26-32 days respectively until 2008 were reviewed, b) the similarities of the spectra were checked and c) the occurrence of QPs with those observed in solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic activities [5], [6] as well as in energetic particles below the atmospheric threshold were discussed [7].
      Keywords: Cosmic rays, neutron monitors, periodicities.

      Proc. 31st Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Lodz, 2009, paper 1126

    • Using the real-time Neutron Monitor Database to establish an Alert signal

      Helen Mavromichalaki {1}, George Souvatzoglou {1}, Christos Sarlanis {1},George Mariatos {1}, Athanasios Papaioannou {1},Anatoly Belov {2}, Eugenia Eroshenko {2} and Victor Yanke {2} for the NMDB team

      {1}Physics Department, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
      {2}Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Propagation after Pushkov, Moscow, Russia

      The European Commission is supporting the real-time database for high-resolution neutron monitor measurements (NMDB) as an e-Infrastructures project in the Seventh Framework Programme in the Capacities section. The realization of the NMDB will provide the opportunity for several applications most of which will be implemented in real-time. An important application will be the establishment of an Alert signal when dangerous solar particle events are heading to the Earth,resulting into a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) registered by neutron monitors (NMs). The cosmic ray community has been occupied with the question of establishing such an Alert for many years and recently several groups succeed in creating a proper algorithm capable of detecting space weather threats in an off-line mode. A lot of original work has been done to this direction and every group working in this field performed routine runs for all GLE cases, resulting into statistical analyses of GLE events. The next step was to make this algorithm as accurate as possible and most importantly, working in real-time. This was achieved when, during the last GLE observed so far, a real-time GLE Alert signal was produced. In this work, the steps of this procedure as well as the functionality of this algorithm for both the scientific community and users are being discussed. Nevertheless, the transition of the Alert algorithm to the NMDB is also being discussed.

      Proc. 31st Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Lodz, 2009, paper 1381

    • Properties of the extreme solar particle events of the cycles 22 and 23

      Maria Andriopoulou {1}, Helen Mavromichalaki {1}, Christina Plainaki {2}, Anatoly Belov {3}, Eugenia Eroshenko {3}

      {1} Physics Department, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
      {2} IFSI-Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Roma, Italy
      {3} IZMIRAN Russian Academy of Sciences after Puskov, Moscow, Russia

      Ground level enhancements (GLEs) are short and sharp increases in the counting rates of cosmic ray intensity measured by neutron monitors. Studying these extreme solar particle events is of particular importance, since they are involved in a vast range of scientific applications. Such a case is the real time GLE alert system functioning in Athens neutron monitor station. In this work an effort to obtain and connect the main characteristics of the thirty one GLEs occurring during the last two solar cycles 22 and 23, is realized via statistical analysis. Despite the uniqueness of these events, characterized by specific solar and interplanetary conditions during the time period they took place, possible similarities of the GLE characteristics between different event cases may be evidence for the existence of common physical mechanisms. This analysis includes the calculation of the onset time and the determination of longitudinal and latitudinal distributions. One-minute and five-minute cosmic ray data provided from the worldwide network of neutron monitors as well as from the NMDB database (http://www.nmdb.eu) was used. The main properties of the analysed cases of GLEs are classified and some preliminary results are presented. The possibility to use them in space weather applications is discussed.

      Proc. 31st Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Lodz, 2009, paper 1529

    • Near real-time determination of ionization and radiation dose rates induced by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere – an NMDB application

      R. Buetikofer and E.O. Flueckiger, for the NMDB team

      Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland

      A real-time database for high resolution neutron monitor data is being developed within the Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB) project funded by the European Union's 7th Frame Work Programme (www.nmdb.eu). In addition to the database, NMDB project will provide different data products. One of these applications is the near real-time determination of ionization and radiation dose rates induced by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. The procedure of this application has four steps. In the first step, the near Earth cosmic ray flux outside the geomagnetosphere is computed based on NMDB. This flux is the basis for the next step, which is computing the cosmic ray flux at the top of the Earth's atmosphere for a 5 degree by 5 degree grid in geographic coordinates. In the third step, the secondary cosmic ray flux and the ionization of the atoms and molecules in the atmosphere at selected altitudes is processed with the Geant4 software package PLANETOCOSMICS. Finally, the radiation dose rates at typical aircraft altitude are evaluated for each grid point by published flux to dose conversion factors. The paper will present the procedure and will compare first computed radiation dose values with other theoretical and measured results.

      Proc. 31st Int. Cos. Ray Conf. Lodz, 2009, paper 1137

    • 'Establishing and Using the real-time Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB)'
      H. Mavromichalaki, A. Papaioannou, C. Sarlanis, G. Souvatzoglou,
      M. Gerontidou, C. Plainaki, M. Papailiou and G. Mariatos for the
      NMDB team

      Advances in Hellenic Astronomy during the IYA09, eds. K. Tsinganos, D. Hatzidimitriou, T. Matsakos, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 424, 75-80, 2010 available here

    • 'Implementation of the Ground Level Enhancements Alert Software at NMDB database'
      H. Mavromichalaki, G. Souvatzoglou, C. Sarlanis, G. Mariatos, A. Papaioannou, A. Belov, E. Eroshenko, V. Yanke for the NMDB team
      New Astronomy,15, 744-748, 2010 - available here
    • 'The Tien-Shan mountain cosmic ray station of the Ionosphere Institute of Kazakhstan Republic'.
      A.G. Zusmanovich, O.N.Kryakunova, A.L.Shepetov.
      Advances in Space Research. V.44, pp. 1194-1199, 2009 ADS link.
    • 'Worldwide Integration of Neutron Monitors'
      H. Mavromichalaki
      Eos of AGU, 91, No 35, 305-306, 2010 - available here
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